flowers in his garden in Peckham. It has an almost three foot high stem and carries on each of them [always carries] a mass of beautiful flowers. Its value is enhanced by flowering [late i.e.] after all other varieties have stopped. With regard to the cold it is hardy [endures well] but must have a light, dry soil.
All species of the lilies as well as the Martagon can be raised from seed and by this means one can obtain some new varieties if only one has kept back the seeds of the best varieties.
The Turk's caps tend to undergo more changes than other lilies. The method to grow them from seed is as follows:
One has to have several rectangular boxes which are approximately six inches deep and have holes in the base that allow for water to run off. These boxes have to be filled with fresh, light, sandy soil. At the beginning of August, and soon after ripening, one sows the seed thickly and covers it with half an inch of light, sieved soil. Following this, the boxes are placed where they receive only morning sun. One has to take care to water them frequently during a dry spell and to remove all emerging weed. The boxes remain until October one places them where they can receive as much sun as possible and are protected throughout the winter from north- and east-winds. In spring, however, one has to place the boxes at the beginning of April in their former position. Because now the young plants which cannot endure too much warmth will show above the soil. Apart from this the soil in the boxes would dry too much during this season if they were exposed to the full mid-day sun. During this season one must also observe that one keeps them well free from weeds and waters them a little during dry weather. The boxes now have to remain in this place until the beginning of August when one can prepare some beds with the above-described fresh, light soil that has to be levelled well. Then one takes the small bulbils together with the soil from the boxes, distributes them evenly over the beds and covers them half an inch thick with finely sieved soil. Should the weather is very hot and dry it is well to protect the beds at mid-day from the sun's heat and to water them now and then.
Furthermore, the beds have to be kept entirely free from weeds. If the following winter was very cold one has to cover the beds with bean straw or other light matter to keep off the cold. [The cold], if it could penetrate deeply, would be damaging to the bulbs, particularly when they are young. In mild weather one must never leave the cover in place, because even this could be damaging to the plants.
In February, when the strong cold is past, one has to clean the topsoil somewhat because it is taken over by moss during the winter. Then a little fresh soil is sieved over the surface, and by this the roots are strengthened. One has to beware, however, of digging too deeply into the soil and so to damage the bulbs. With increasingly good weather they have to be diligently cleared of weeds, and they have to be watered during dry spells. At the end of May they will profit from some shade.
When the leaves have wilted entirely, the soil surface of the beds has to be slightly dug over, but not too deep. This prevents the strong growth of weeds and is very useful to the bulbs. In September