FZ volume:1 part:1 (1960) Capparidaceae by H. Wild
(Search other Kew databases for: Cleome hirta)
Cleome hirta (Klotzsch) Oliv.
F.T.A. 1: 81 (1868). — Briq. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève, 17: 363 (1914). — R.E.Fr., Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.–Kongo-Exped. 1: 49 (1914). — Gilg & Bened. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 53: 162 (1915). — Eyles in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 5: 355 (1916). — Burtt Davy, F.P.F.T. 1: 121 (1926). — Bremek. & Oberm. in Ann. Transv. Mus. 16: 414 (1935). — Exell & Mendonça, C.F.A. 1 1: 56 (1937). — Hauman & Wilczek, F.C.B. 2: 515 (1951). Type: Mozambique, Sena, Peters (B, holotype).
Cleome bechuanensis Bremek. & Oberm.
in Ann. Transv. Mus. 16: 413 (1935). Type: Bechuanaland Prot., Chobe R., Kabulabula, van Son (PRE, holotype; SRGH).
sensu Hopkins, Bacon & Gyde, Comm. Veld Fl.: 59 (1940).
Cleome pulcherrima Busc. & Muschl.
in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 49: 467 (1913). — Gilg & Bened., loc. cit. Type from Tanganyika.
Decastemon hirtus Klotzsch
in Peters, Reise Mossamb. Bot. 1: 157 (1861). Type as above.
Polanisia hirta (Klotzsch) Pax
in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 10: 14 (1888). Type as above.
N: Chobe R., 60 km. N. of Kachikau on road to Kazane, fl. & fr. 11.vii.1937, Erens 393 (K; PRE; SRGH).
SE: Kwena, 20 km. W. of Gaberones, fl. & fr. 5.v.1955, Reineke 328 (K; PRE).
C: Kasungu, fl. & fr. 26.viii.1946, Brass 17431 (K).
N: Mzimba, Mbawa Exp. Station, fl. & fr. 5.iv.1955, Jackson 1590 (K; SRGH).
S: Blantyre, fl. & fr. 1876, Simons (BM).
GI: Guija Distr., R. Limpopo, fl. & fr. vii.1915, Gazaland Exped. (PRE; SRGH).
M: Manhiça, Mugaba, fl. 15.iv.1945, Gomes e Sousa 175 (BM; LISC; PRE).
MS: Maringa, fl. & fr. 26.vi.1950, Chase 2498 (BM; K; SRGH).
N: east coast of Lake Nyasa, fl. & fr. Johnson 28 (K).
T: Boroma, Msusa, fl. & fr. Chase 2687 (BM; K; PRE; SRGH).
B: near Senanga, fl. & fr. 30.vii.1952, Codd 7241 (K; PRE; SRGH).
E: Katete, fl. 11.ii.1957, Wright 148 (K).
N: Luapula R., Miloki, fl. & fr. 6.ix.1953, Fanshawe 272 (K).
S: Livingstone, fl. i.1910, Rogers 7257 (K; SRGH).
C: Que Que Reserve, fl. & fr. 8.i.1955, Ward 7 (SRGH).
E: Sabi Valley, Mtema, fl. 28.i.1948, Wild 2394 (K; SRGH).
N: Darwin, fl. & fr. 14.vi.1921, Eyles 3103 (SRGH).
S: Gwanda, Bubye R., fl. & fr. v.1955, Davies 1277 (SRGH).
W: Bulawayo, fl. & fr. 15.ii.1944, Hopkins in GHS 11741 (K; SRGH).
Angola; Belgian Congo; Kenya; Somaliland; SW. Africa; Tanganyika; Transvaal; Uganda;
A plant of open woodlands in rainfall areas of usually less than 75 cm. p.a., i.e. in Acacia or Colophospermum mopane woodland rather than in Brachystegia woodland.
Coarse, aromatic, viscid, erect herb up to 1.6 m. tall; branches striate, pubescent with gland-tipped hairs. Leaves 5–7–9-foliolate, on glandular, hairy petioles up to 7 cm. long but often less: leaflets 0.5–5.5 x 0.05–0.5 cm., linear, linear-lanceolate or narrowly oblong-lanceolate, subacute or rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base, glandular-hairy on both sides or sometimes glabrescent, decreasing in size upwards and passing into the sessile bracts which are commonly 3-foliolate but occasionally simple or 5-foliolate. Inflorescence a terminal raceme which is moderately dense at first but eventually becomes greatly elongated in fruit; pedicels slender, glandular-pubescent. Sepals up to 1.2 cm. long, linear, subulate towards the apex, glandular-hairy outside. Petals up to 1.9 x 0.4 cm., purplish or pink, paler towards the base, with a lanceolate-oblong lamina rounded at the apex and with a distinct basal claw from 1/3 to almost as long as the lamina. Stamens 10–12, filaments up to c. 2.5 cm. long, purplish, very slender, often glandular-pubescent towards the base, exserted; anther-thecae c. 2 mm. long, linear-oblong. Ovary linear, glandular-pubescent, with a short, glandular gynophore c. 2 mm. long even when young; style c. 2 mm. long, glabrous; stigma subcapitate. Capsule up to 16 x 0.4 cm., linear, on a glandular gynophore 0.5–2.0 cm. long; valves glandular-pubescent or glabrescent, with 7–9 anastomosing, longitudinal nerves; persistent style 3–5 mm. long. Seeds 2––2.5 mm. in diam., transversely tuberculate-rugose with a very minute, mealy-glandular pubescence visible at a x 40 magnification.
The plant described as C. bechuanensis represents the dry-season form which has narrower leaves and smaller flowers than typical C. hirta. C. pulcherrima was described from a specimen collected allegedly by the Duchess of Aosta near Broken Hill in N. Rhodesia but Gilg and Benedict have shown (loc. cit.) that in reality it was based on a specimen collected in Tanganyika by von Prittwitz, so it does not really concern us here.